Monday, 7 November 2016
Reading Passage 3 has seven paragraphs A-G.
Which paragraph contains the following information?
31. A scientific explanation of why Reiki may have positive effects. Paragraph _________
32. An overview of the practicalities of how Reiki is performed. Paragraph _________
33. The pre-requisite required to experience Reiki benefits. Paragraph _________
34. When patients faith and expectations cause concern. Paragraph _________
35. The immediate effects that can be experienced by recipients. Paragraph _________
36. The safety of conducting therapy for practitioners. Paragraph _________
A. The spiritual practice of Reiki was first introduced in early 20th century Japan and continues to be used by its followers today with the intention of treating physical, emotional and mental imbalances and consequent ill-health. The principles of Reiki involve techniques employed by practitioners they say will channel healing energy through the subject’s body, and advocates hold that these techniques can also be used for self-healing. The name of the practice itself stems from two Japanese characters, pronounced ‘rei’ which translates to ‘unseen’ or ‘spiritual’ and ‘ki’ meaning ‘life force’ or energy’.
B. According to Reiki philosophy, only by undergoing an attunement process performed by a Reiki Master is an individual able to access, then channel this positive energy within, this ability once established is considered to be enduring. Once attuned, it is said that an individual has the ability to allow energy to flow to weak or diseased areas of the body, so activating a natural healing process. Reiki energy is considered to be ‘intelligent energy’ in that it automatically flows to such areas; for this reason, practitioners believe that diagnosis of a specific problem is unnecessary beforehand and that the practice can be used as preventative medicine and encourage healing prior to the onset of tangible symptoms. Since healing initiated by Reiki treatment is entirely natural, many practitioners are confident that it can be used alongside any other type of treatment without adverse affect; however, others recommend that since the patient may undergo significant internal improvement for certain ailments – diabetes, for example - careful monitoring is required since such improvements may establish a need for an alteration in medication requirements.
C. A ‘whole body’ Reiki treatment session typically lasts between 45 to 90 minutes. The subject is required to lie down – often on a treatment table – clothed in comfortable and loose fitting attire. Treatment may involve the practitioner placing their hands on the recipient in a variety of positions; however, some therapists take a non-touching approach, holding their hands a few centimeters away from the body. Hands are usually held in one position for up to 5 minutes before moving on to the next part of the body; between 12 and 20 hand positions are generally used. Those who have undergone a Reiki treatment session often state that they experienced a pleasant warmness in the area of focus and a feeling of contentment and relaxation throughout the session.
D. The healing energy is said to originate in the universe itself and is not the passing of personal energy from practitioner to patient; it is therefore thought to be inexhaustible and the personal well-being of the practitioner uncompromised. While some masters and teachers hold that subjects must be receptive to the concept in order for energy to flow, others believe that the attitude of the patient is of no consequence and that benefits will follow regardless; for this reason, those following the latter school of thought say that since Reiki requires no conscious belief it can also benefit the well-being of animals and plant life.
E. Controversy surrounds the practice of Reiki, some in opposition as they say that Reiki may offer only a perceived improvement in health and therefore only a ‘placebo’ effect. Whilst the practice of Reiki itself is not necessarily considered potentially harmful, some medical practitioners are concerned that its benefits may be over-estimated by patients and that, as a result, they may ignore or abandon conventional treatments. Others argue against the reliability of Reiki due to the lack of regulation of practitioners, holding that patients may be left vulnerable to illegitimate therapists who lack knowledge and skill. While Reiki is not connected to any particular religious doctrine, some religious leaders oppose the practice for spiritual reasons; however, others hold that the meditative principles involved in treatment have enhanced their own ability to explore and embrace their own particular religion.
F. Limited scientific studies in the authenticity of Reiki have been conducted. During research conducted by the Institute of Neurological Studies at South Glasgow University Hospital it was observed that there was a significant decrease in heart rate and blood pressure amongst subjects receiving 30 minutes of Reiki treatment as opposed to a group receiving placebo treatment of 30 minutes rest. Since the test group consisted of a small number of subjects – just 45 – the research recommendations concluded a requirement for further studies. A similarly small preliminary study into the potential effects of Reiki on patients suffering mild dementia, conducted in the USA, tentatively suggested that treatment had a positive effect on the subjects’ memory abilities; however, research limitations included insufficient analysis of potential placebo affects.
G. Other studies have also attempted to determine correlation between Reiki treatment and improvement in cancer and stroke patients. Whilst investigations into the first condition indicated a seemingly positive effect on degrees of fatigue, pain and stress experienced by sufferers, the second project failed to reveal a link between treatment and improvement in the subjects’ condition and rehabilitation. Theories have been put forward that the benefits of energy treatments such as Reiki may be scientifically attributed to the effect of electromagnetic fields; however, the majority researchers agree that more extensive investigation is required.
EXERCISE 4 DIFFICULTY: UPPER INTERMEDIATE TEST : FCE
From questions 1-10, read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of some of the lines to form a word that fits in the gap in the same line. There is an example at the beginning (0).
The Real Walkers Company offers a (0)selection. of small group SELECT
walking holidays which explore some delightful hidden corners of
Europe, the Americas and Australasia. There is always something
for everyone to enjoy on these holidays. (1)….. of age or level of REGARD
(2)…… . The brochure includes various destinations and a range FIT
of itineraries. These range from sightseeing tours of (3)…… cities HISTORY
to undemanding walking trips in unspoilt coastal and country
regions and, for the more (4)……traveler, challenging mountain ADVENTURE
or hill-walking expeditions.
But it would be (5)…… to give the impression that these holidays FAIR
are just about walking. According to the brochure, an (6)……. of ENJOY
walking is often the thing that brings together a group of like-
minded people, who share the (7)…… of good companionship in PLEASE
(8)…… surroundings. ATTRACT
The company believes that its tour leaders are the key t its
success. These people are (9)…… trained and are particularly FULL
keen to (10)……. that each individual traveler makes the most SURE
of their trip.
EXERCISE 3 DIFFICULTY: MEDIUM TEST : FCE
For questions 1-15, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each gap. Use only one word in each space. There is an example at the beginning (0).
CREDIT CARDS FOR CHILDREN
Children as young as twelve have (0) ...been...... offered credit cards by certain companies. They encourage the children to load (1)...........plastic cards with money (at terminals in the high street) and use (2).......... to shop on the internet. The companies aim to open up the market to young people (3).......... are not allowed to use the internet for shopping, as they are (4)......... young to get credit cards.(5)............ a credit card, the child’s card has numbers on the front of it and a magnetic strip on the back (6)......... the children(7).............. to sign. This serves only to add to its ‘grown up’ feel, as signatures are (8).............. necessary for internet shopping.
Some people are concerned that the teenagers could get into debt at an early age. Others argue that the cards will be limited to a fixed (9)............. of money and that children will therefore only be able to spend as (10).......... as they have on the card. They believe that the cards will help children to manage (11).......... own money at an early age and not to (12)........... it.
The cards have been advertised (13)............. teenage magazines and research shows that children like the independence of (14).............able to shop with plastic and the fact that they are not tied (15)..........their parents.
EXERCISE 2 DIFFICULTY: MEDIUM TEST: PET
For questions 1– 8, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given.
DO NOT CHANGE THE WORD GIVEN. You must use between TWO and FIVE words, including the word given. Here is an example (0).
0 A very friendly taxi driver drove us to town.
We . . . . . . WERE DRIVEN TO TOWN BY . . . . . a very friendly driver.
1 I think Robert is too young to look after his brother.
I think Robert isn’t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . of his brother.
2 Tomas put up a fence so that people didn´t walk on his garden.
Tomas put up a fence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . on his garden.
3 The twins are eager to see their cousins again in the summer.
The twins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . their cousins again in the summer.
4 The last time Enrico saw Gloria was the day they left school.
Enrico has . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . the day they left school.
5 Luckily, we had enough glasses at the party.
Luckily, we . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . glasses at the party.
6 Nicholas finally managed to get his new video recorder to work.
Nicholas finally . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . his new video recorder to work.
7 You did not take enough care over your homework last week
You . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . more care over your homework last week.
8 Reuben is the only person to have won the championship three times running.
Apart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ever won the championship three times running.
EXERCISE 1 DIFFICULTY: EASY TEST: KET
All of the following sentences should be completed using the verbs and words in the parentheses to fill in the blanks.
A) I (visit) visited my grandmother yesterday.
B) Sandra (travel) has traveled abroad several times.
1. A: Did you like the movie "Star Wars"?
B: I don't know. I (see, never)_______________________________________ that movie.
2. Sam (arrive)___________________________________ in San Diego a week ago.
3. My best friend and I (know)_____________________________________ each other for over fifteen years.
4. Stinson is a fantastic writer. He (write)____________________________________ ten very creative short stories in the last year. One day, he'll be as famous as Hemingway.
5. I (have, not)___________________________ this much fun since I (be)____________________ a kid.
6. Things (change)_________________________________ a great deal at Coltech, Inc. When
we first (start) __________________________________ working here three years ago, the
company (have, only) ___________________________ six employees. Since then, we
(expand)__________________________ to include more than 2000 full-time workers.
7. I (tell)___________________________________ him to stay on the path while he was
hiking, but he (wander)_________________________ off into the forest and (bite)
_________________ by a snake.
8. Listen Donna, I don't care if you (miss)________________________________ the bus this
morning. You (be) _______________________________ late to work too many times. You are fired!
9. Sam is from Colorado, which is hundreds of miles from the coast, so he (see, never)
_____________________________ the ocean. He should come with us to Miami.
10. How sad! George (dream)______________________________ of going to California before
he died, but he didn't make it. He (see, never)____________________________________ the ocean.
11. In the last hundred years, traveling (become)_______________________________ much
easier and very comfortable. In the 19th century, it (take) ___________________ two or
three months to cross North America by covered wagon. The trip (be) ________________ very rough and often dangerous.
Things (change)_________________________________ a great deal in the last hundred and fiftyyears. Now you can fly from New York to Los Angeles in a matter of hours.
12. Jonny, I can't believe how much you (change)________________________________ since the last time I (see)
__________________________ you. You (grow)___________________________ at least a foot!